Content State-Machine-Style Pattern?

I have been looking at different content publication models, and state machine concepts continually come up. But curious to know if there are patterns for state-machine-style usage.

I am not trying to exactly create a “state machine”, but more looking at how some of the state machine flow concepts can be applied to workflow.

Example scenario:

I used something like the workflow of content being published (say on a website). Someone initially creates a content object (the start event) and sets the initial state of the content. Then based on received messages from the client, the state would be updated.

I have tried to keep the picture as simple as possible, so there are certain aspects that are inferred that you would add in practice.

Is there a better way to model this? Other patterns? People’s thoughts?


Hi Stephen,

I found that Harel Statecharts had quite a nice mapping to BPMN. In particular I found substates in the statecharts mapped nicely to nested scopes in the bpmn engine…

Harel Statecharts Reference



@Webcyberrob do you have a bpmn example file of this?

Hi Stephen,

Heres one for bill payment. A bill is in the unpaid or paid states. In the unpaid state there is due and overdue sub-states. Within the due state there is the payment scheduled sub-state etc. Hence hopefully you can see these as nested scopes…



Given content management implies a more object centered or document-centric approach to process modeling, maybe a CMMN model provides a better illustration? For example, a document’s state may go directly from “published” back to “draft” - this implying a person/worker noticed an error, and outside the context of the process model, set the content’s “review” status to something like “contains errors” (i.e. draft-state).

Now, regardless of the token’s position in our process model, it must jump from “state:published” to “state: draft” - basically representing the need for cross-cutting a BPMN model so that all tasks become reasonably accessible regardless of path. Hence, CMMN is the better solution.

BPMN models tend to “straight-jacket” documents into activities - as described above in an absence of path from “published” to “draft”. Acknowledging that your model doesn’t represent actual activities… though implied given a request for “state-machine-style” (also taking a liberal position for discussion).

Given need for document-centric design (content state machine), we’re looking at case management… (Van der Aalst):

The core features of case handling are:

• avoid context tunneling by providing all information available (i.e., present the case as a whole rather than showing just bits and pieces),

• decide which activities are enabled on the basis of the information available rather than the activities already executed,

• separate work distribution from authorization and allow for additional types of roles, not just the execute role,

• allow workers to view and add/modify data before or after the corresponding activities have been executed (e.g., information can be registered the moment it becomes available).

Van der Aalst, Wil MP, Mathias Weske, and Dolf Grünbauer. “Case handling: a new paradigm for business process support.” Data & Knowledge Engineering 53.2 (2005): 129-162.